In the s, gay culture had flourished in Prussia, especially Berlin, which was known as the "homosexual capital of Europe", and many homosexuals had come out of the closet. The aim of the National Socialist regime was the creation of the idealised Volksgemeinschaft "people's community" that would unite the German people into one, and which required the removal of all who either would not join the Volksgemeinschaft or those who considered to be racially "unfit" to join the Volksgemeinschaft. The German historian Detlev Peukert wrote the basis of Nazi thinking about the Volksgemeinschaft was "Its basis was the racialist elimination of all elements that deviated from the norm: As a consequence, many fled Germany e.
Bombe Within weeks of arriving at Bletchley Park,  Turing had specified an electromechanical machine called the bombewhich could break Enigma more effectively than the Polish bomba kryptologicznafrom which its name was derived. The bombe, with an enhancement suggested by mathematician Gordon Welchmanbecame one of the primary tools, and the major automated one, used to attack Enigma-enciphered messages.
For each possible setting of the rotors which had on the order of states, or states for the four-rotor U-boat variant the bombe performed a chain of logical deductions based on the crib, implemented electromechanically.
Most of the possible settings would cause contradictions and be discarded, leaving only a few to be investigated in detail. A contradiction would occur when an enciphered letter would be turned back into the same plaintext letter, which was impossible with the Enigma. The first bombe was installed on 18 March Building on the work of the Polesthey had set up a good working system for decrypting Enigma signals, but their limited staff and bombes meant they could not translate all the signals.
In the summer, they had considerable success, and shipping losses had fallen to undertons a month; however, they badly needed more resources to keep abreast of German adjustments.
They had tried to get more people and fund more bombes through the proper channels, but had failed. They emphasised how small their need was compared with the vast expenditure of men and money by the forces and compared with the level of assistance they could offer to the forces.
Make sure they have all they want on extreme priority and report to me that this has been done. Banburismus could rule out certain sequences of the Enigma rotors, substantially reducing the time needed to test settings on the bombes. The American Bombe programme was to produce Bombes, one for each wheel order.
I used to smile inwardly at the conception of Bombe hut routine implied by this programme, but thought that no particular purpose would be served by pointing out that we would not really use them in that way.
Their test of commutators can hardly be considered conclusive as they were not testing for the bounce with electronic stop finding devices. Nobody seems to be told about rods or offiziers or banburismus unless they are really going to do something about it.
During his absence, Hugh Alexander had officially assumed the position of head of Hut 8, although Alexander had been de facto head for some time Turing having little interest in the day-to-day running of the section. Turing became a general consultant for cryptanalysis at Bletchley Park.
In the early days, he was the only cryptographer who thought the problem worth tackling and not only was he primarily responsible for the main theoretical work within the Hut, but he also shared with Welchman and Keen the chief credit for the invention of the bombe.
This was a teleprinter rotor cipher attachment codenamed Tunny at Bletchley Park. Turingery was a method of wheel-breaking, i.
Turingery and the statistical approach of Banburismus undoubtedly fed into the thinking about cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher  but he was not directly involved in the Colossus development.
There he further developed his knowledge of electronics with the assistance of engineer Donald Bayley. Together they undertook the design and construction of a portable secure voice communications machine codenamed Delilah.
Though the system worked fully, with Turing demonstrating it to officials by encrypting and decrypting a recording of a Winston Churchill speech, Delilah was not adopted for use. He presented a paper on 19 Februarywhich was the first detailed design of a stored-program computer.
In late he returned to Cambridge for a sabbatical year during which he produced a seminal work on Intelligent Machinery that was not published in his lifetime. The interrogation had the form of a colloquium. Turing was appointed Reader in the Mathematics Department at the Victoria University of Manchester in and inbecame Deputy Director of the Computing Machine Laboratory there, working on software for one of the earliest stored-program computers—the Manchester Mark 1.
During this time he continued to do more abstract work in mathematics,  and in " Computing Machinery and Intelligence " MindOctoberTuring addressed the problem of artificial intelligenceand proposed an experiment that became known as the Turing testan attempt to define a standard for a machine to be called "intelligent".
The idea was that a computer could be said to "think" if a human interrogator could not tell it apart, through conversation, from a human being. In Turing, working with his former undergraduate colleague, D.
Champernownebegan writing a chess program for a computer that did not yet exist. Bythe program was completed and dubbed the Turbochamp. Instead, Turing "ran" the program by flipping through the pages of the algorithm and carrying out its instructions on a chessboard, taking about half an hour per move.
The game was recorded. He was interested in morphogenesisthe development of patterns and shapes in biological organisms. Among other things, he wanted to understand Fibonacci phyllotaxisthe existence of Fibonacci numbers in plant structures.
For example, if a catalyst A is required for a certain chemical reaction to take place, and if the reaction produced more of the catalyst A, then we say that the reaction is autocatalyticand there is positive feedback that can be modelled by nonlinear differential equations.
Turing discovered that patterns could be created if the chemical reaction not only produced catalyst A, but also produced an inhibitor B that slowed down the production of A.The Enemy Within: Homosexuality in the Third Reich, Abstract From to , the Nazi regime in Germany ruthlessly targeted homosexuals, particularly men, as.
() Ilana Leeds, June 1, PM. One of the best articles I have ever read with regard to homosexuality. Rechtsextremismus und Nationalsozialismus. Der Artikel analysiert die Haftbedingungen der Rosa-Winkel-Häftlinge im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz. National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) Sturmabteilung (SA) Schutzstaffel (SS) Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo) Hitler Youth (HJ) Deutsches Jungvolk (DJ).
Prescott (the elder) was a Banker. This one census report contains numerous anomalies: The incorrect age of husband GHS1/PSB - It should be 35, not “34,” according to biographical declarations. Early life and education Family.
Turing was born in Maida Vale, London, while his father, Julius Mathison Turing (–), was on leave from his position with the Indian Civil Service (ICS) at Chhatrapur, then in the Madras Presidency and presently in Odisha state, in British India.
Turing's father was the son of a clergyman, the Rev. John Robert Turing.