This bloody coup led to an extraordinary period of human rights violations and other heinous crimes in Chile. This paper relates to the human rights part of the Pinochet story, what happened to the people of Chile because of the legacy of Pinochet, why that is important today, and how the violations of human rights in Chile mirrored similar violations in Europe and elsewhere. This was not typical of South American governments, Rodley explains, but notwithstanding the democratic tradition in Chile the country was overthrown by a military coup on September 11, Led by a military junta that General Augusto Pinochet had control over, and by money and covert actions by the United States, the coup put Pinochet in power and led to the demise of president Allende, who committed suicide rather than be assassinated by the members of the military that were part of the coup.
The Pinochet Regime and Chilean Politics Matthew GilmourApr 3views This content was written by a student and assessed as part of a university degree.
To find out more about E-IR essay awards, click here. General Augusto Pinochet took control of Chile in September following a military coup which had ousted the previous incumbent Salvador Allende.
When in power, Pinochet instituted vast reforms to try to cure the Chilean nation which had been left in a deep economic, social, political and constitutional crisis.
This essay will evaluate whether the Pinochet regime brought political stability and economic improvement to Chile during its time in power between and It will ultimately argue that although the country was Augusto pinochet essay political and economic chaos when the Pinochet regime took charge in Septemberand although the Pinochet regime was responsible for bringing both political stability and to some extent economic improvement, the brutal way the Pinochet regime operated and achieved these goals seriously questions the extent of their importance Augusto pinochet essay basic humanity and ethics.
Pinochet took control of Chile following a successful military coup on September 11th which ended the reign of the democratically elected president Salvador Allende. Before going on to examine the Pinochet regime, it is important to understand how Allende came to power and the Augusto pinochet essay in Chile due to the reforms enacted during his time in office.
Allende was elected into the presidency on his fourth attempt in with Allende was head of the Popular Unity coalition and a revolutionary socialist who, following his inauguration, quickly set about reforming Chile in the hope of eventually creating a socialist society with genuine popular control over economic and political life Valenzuela,p.
Despite only winning the highest minority of the vote in the election and requiring a congressional vote of approval to take up the presidency, Allende still sought to implement revolutionary reforms believing that he would soon overcome his minority election as people would become convinced that his government was a true popular government Valenzuela,p.
To do this Allende instituted structural reforms, including land reform and the nationalization of industries, which were designed to ease the transition from capitalism to socialism by shifting the balance of power away from the bourgeois, the economic elite, to the masses Oppenheim,p.
However, when in office a number of issues obstructed Allende and his project of reforms. The constitution, which included staggered elections meaning that the president and Congress were elected at different times, was one such problem.
Both of these institutions made it difficult for Allende to enact reforms; however he did manage to implement his desired changes, but controversially via decrees, where he used his power to insist that all ministers sign their support for his reforms Oppenheim,p.
Once in power Allende also faced huge resistance to his socialist reforms from a number of groups. His election and proposed reforms polarised society, but whereas usually it is the working classes and trade unions that revolt against the government, between andChile was a country where the historical roles of the different social classes were reversed Burbach,p.
The rich and powerful went on strike, large commercial houses and shopkeepers closed their doors, large landowners refused to plant their fields and owners of the means of transportation stopped their vehicles whilst some industries curtailed or halted production Burbach,p.
The actions of these more wealthy groups in society caused huge problems for Allende and the Chilean state in general. When this failed and Allende assumed office, the United States embarked on a strategy of destabilising the new government, which included cutting off virtually all bilateral funding, pressurising international agencies like the World Bank to stop making loans to Chile, and in general working with US corporations to strangle the Chilean economy Burbach,p.
When elected Allende raised workers salaries whilst keeping the prices of basic consumer goods low, which although stimulating the economy in the short-term, in the longer-term led to high inflation, a scarcity of goods and a thriving black market Oppenheim,p.
Violence also escalated under the Allende government. Extremists on both sides of the political divide, some of whom on the right had been funded by the United States, carried out assassinations, blackouts and bombings resulting in criticism of the Allende government for the lack of law and order and its failure to act decisively Sigmund,p.
Then, perhaps the last piece of the jigsaw leading up to the military coup occurred in August The commander in chief of the military, General Prats, resigned believing he had lost the confidence of most of the generals in the army, leading to the appointment of General Pinochet in his position Burbach,p Although, the Chilean military had a good record of non-involvement in civilian politics, as opposed to forces in other Latin American countries Sigmund,p.
Following the coup, a military government was setup which, under the leadership of Pinochet, sought to bring political stability and economic improvement to Chile. One of the key areas highlighted for reform by the military government was the economy.
Pinochet reformed the Chilean economy under the guidance of economics graduates trained at the University of Chicago by Milton Friedman, who outlined a neo-liberal economic plan for national development to modernise Chile Oppenheim,pp.
The neo-liberal model involved the freeing up of market forces, the privatisation of vast segments of the economy, and removing the state from its previous role of overseeing economic and social change Oppenheim,pp. Neo-liberal economics allowed the Chilean economy to become firmly enmeshed within the world economy, lowered tariff barriers allowing Chileans to buy all kinds of imported goods, firmly established multinational corporations in the country and modernized Chilean agriculture Oppenheim,pp.
The Pinochet regime also enacted huge constitutional changes to improve the stability of the Chilean political system. In a new constitution was put in place which attempted to revise some of the problems present in the constitution. The new constitution allowed for the simultaneous election of the president and Congress which removed the adverse effects of staggered elections, an issue which had caused considerable problems for the Allende administration, whilst also establishing a two-round runoff system for the popular election of the president, meaning a second round of elections would be called if no candidate got a majority of the vote, a reform which is likely to have prevented the election of Allende in if it had been in place at the time Sigmund,p.
The new constitution also signalled a return to democracy.Augusto Jose Ramon Pinochet Ugarte also known as Augusto Pinochet was born on November 25, in Valparaiso, Chile, and died on December 10, in Santiago, Chile.
He was a murderous Dictator who ruled in Chile from to He was Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army from to Essay.
THE LAW AND POLITICS OF THE PINOCHET CASE MICHAEL BYERS* [T]his sovereign authority which is a State’s own right, does not at present have an absolute character, not even in the internal order, due to the international atmosphere reigning in the world.
To find out more about E-IR essay awards, click here.. General Augusto Pinochet took control of Chile in September following a military coup which had ousted the previous incumbent Salvador Allende. Augusto Pinochet Essay Augusto Pinochet It is often said that one cannot separate civilized life with the desire to dictate other people.
This is true and it is proven by previous leaders in the countries around us. FIDEL CASTRO IS NOT AUGUSTO PINOCHET By Alejandro Guevara Onofre. INTRODUCTION: Since Fidel and Raul Castro have send a sinister example to Third World nations. Augusto Pinochet, in full Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, (born November 25, , Valparaiso, Chile—died December 10, , Santiago), leader of the military junta that overthrew the socialist government of Pres.
Salvador Allende of Chile on September 11, Pinochet was head of Chile’s military.