Cynthia fox science writer perelman

In he was called before the dean for a January editorial in The Brown Jug. Ah, the college boys, the college boys! Perelman was born on Feb.

Cynthia fox science writer perelman

Grigori's mother Lyubov gave up graduate work in mathematics to raise him. Grigori's mathematical talent became apparent at the age of ten, and his mother enrolled him in Sergei Rukshin's after-school math training program.

Grigori excelled in all subjects except physical education. In the late s and early s, with a strong recommendation from the geometer Mikhail Gromov[14] Perelman obtained research positions at several universities in the United States.

Petersburg Mathematical Society for his work on Aleksandrov's spaces of curvature bounded from below. After having proved the soul conjecture inhe was offered jobs at several top universities in the US, including Princeton and Stanfordbut he rejected them all and returned to the Steklov Institute in Saint Petersburg in the summer of for a research-only position.

cynthia fox science writer perelman

Then the soul of M is a point; equivalently M is diffeomorphic to Rn. Among his notable achievements was a short and elegant proof of the soul conjecture. Any loop on a 3-sphere —as exemplified by the set of points at a distance of 1 from the origin in four-dimensional Euclidean space—can be contracted into a point.

The analogous result has been known to be true in dimensions greater than or equal to five since as in the work of Stephen Smale.

The four-dimensional case resisted longer, finally being solved in by Michael Freedman. But the case of three-manifolds turned out to be the hardest of them all.

Roughly speaking, this is because in topologically manipulating a three-manifold there are too few dimensions to move "problematic regions" out of the way without interfering with something else. The most fundamental contribution to the three-dimensional case had been produced by Richard S.

The role of Perelman was to complete the Hamilton program. Hamilton 's program for a proof of the conjecture. The central idea is the notion of the Ricci flow. Hamilton's fundamental idea is to formulate a "dynamical process" in which a given three-manifold is geometrically distorted such that this distortion process is governed by a differential equation analogous to the heat equation.

The heat equation which much earlier motivated Riemann to state his Riemann hypothesis on the zeros of the zeta function describes the behavior of scalar quantities such as temperature. It ensures that concentrations of elevated temperature will spread out until a uniform temperature is achieved throughout an object.

Similarly, the Ricci flow describes the behavior of a tensorial quantitythe Ricci curvature tensor.

~Los Angeles Radio People, Where Are They Now, F

Hamilton's hope was that under the Ricci flow concentrations of large curvature will spread out until a uniform curvature is achieved over the entire three-manifold. If so, if one starts with any three-manifold and lets the Ricci flow occur, then one should, in principle, eventually obtain a kind of "normal form".

According to William Thurston this normal form must take one of a small number of possibilities, each having a different kind of geometry, called Thurston model geometries. This is similar to formulating a dynamical process that gradually "perturbs" a given square matrix and that is guaranteed to result after a finite time in its rational canonical form.

Hamilton's idea attracted a great deal of attention, but no one could prove that the process would not be impeded by developing "singularities", until Perelman's eprints sketched a simple procedure for overcoming these obstacles.

According to Perelman, a modification of the standard Ricci flow, called Ricci flow with surgerycan systematically excise singular regions as they develop, in a controlled way.

It was known that singularities including those that, roughly speaking, occur after the flow has continued for an infinite amount of time must occur in many cases. However, any singularity that develops in a finite time is essentially a "pinching" along certain spheres corresponding to the prime decomposition of the 3-manifold.

Furthermore, any "infinite time" singularities result from certain collapsing pieces of the JSJ decomposition. Perelman's work proves this claim and thus proves the geometrization conjecture.

Perelman's work was checked relatively quickly. On 25 MayBruce Kleiner and John Lottboth of the University of Michiganposted a paper on arXiv that fills in the details of Perelman's proof of the Geometrization conjecture.

This is partly due to the originality of Perelman's work and partly to the technical sophistication of his arguments. All indications are that his arguments are correct. The June paper claimed: In the same issue, the AJM editorial board issued an apology for what it called "incautions" in the Cao—Zhu paper.

The authors also removed the phrase "crowning achievement" from the abstract.

Cynthia Fox, Author and Journalist

After 10 hours of attempted persuasion over two days, Ball gave up."Cynthia Fox is an award-winning science writer whose work has appeared in a variety of high-profile populist publications. Her new book on human embryonic stem (hES) cells is a fascinating and accessible book contains a myriad of fascinating and disturbing tales.

The following is a list of notable individuals associated with Barnard College through attendance as a student, service as a member of the faculty or staff, or award of the Barnard Medal of Distinction.

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He is a writer for Family Guy on FOX. Bob Fox, Cynthia Fox, John Fox, Bob graduated from Stanford University with a political-science degree. He was in on the embryonic days of television and many firsts in Los Angeles radio.

After graduation in , he . Mollie Durkin, Staff Writer, is an award-winning reporter who has focused on health and science since graduating in from the University of Pittsburgh.

Prior to this role, she was health reporter for The York Dispatch, her hometown newspaper. Thalia Rubio is a Lecturer in Comparative Media Studies/Writing.

Before coming to MIT, she worked as a freelance technical writer and taught technical writing at Northeastern University. She is also the author of an advanced ESL textbook, Slices of Life: Writing from North America (Regents/Prentice Hall).

cynthia fox science writer perelman
List of Barnard College people - Wikipedia