Christian views on cloning The Roman Catholic Churchunder the papacy of Benedict XVIcondemned the practice of human cloning, in the magisterial instruction Dignitas Personaestating that it represents a "grave offense to the dignity of that person as well as to the fundamental equality of all people. The World Council of Churchesrepresenting nearly Christian denominations worldwide, opposed cloning of both human embryos and whole humans in February
Somatic cell nuclear transfer Diagram of SCNT Process In somatic cell nuclear transfer "SCNT"the nucleus of a somatic cell is taken from a donor and transplanted into a host egg cellwhich had its own genetic material removed previously, making it an enucleated egg.
After the donor somatic cell genetic material is transferred into the host oocyte with a micropipette, the somatic cell genetic material is fused with the egg using an electric current.
Once the two cells have fused, the new cell can be permitted to grow in a surrogate or artificially. Induced pluripotent stem cell Creating induced pluripotent stem cells "iPSCs" is a long and inefficient process.
Pluripotency refers to a stem cell that has the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers: These factors send signals in the mature cell that cause the cell to become a pluripotent stem cell.
This process is highly studied and new techniques are being discovered frequently on how to better this induction process. Depending on the method used, reprogramming of adult cells into iPSCs for implantation could have severe limitations in humans.
If a virus is used as a reprogramming factor for the cell, cancer-causing genes called oncogenes may be activated. These cells would appear as rapidly dividing cancer cells that do not respond to the body's natural cell signaling process.
However, in scientists discovered a technique that could remove the presence of these oncogenes after pluripotency induction, thereby increasing the potential use of iPSC in humans.
New studies are working to improve the process of iPSC in terms of both speed and efficiency with the discovery of new reprogramming factors in oocytes. Observing human pluripotent stem cells grown in culture provides great insight into human embryo developmentwhich otherwise cannot be seen.
Scientists are now able to better define steps of early human development. Studying signal transduction along with genetic manipulation within the early human embryo has the potential to provide answers to many developmental diseases and defects.
Many human-specific signaling pathways have been discovered by studying human embryonic stem cells. Studying developmental pathways in humans has given developmental biologists more evidence toward the hypothesis that developmental pathways are conserved throughout species.
Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.
Bone marrow transplantation is a widely used form of stem cell therapy. Research is underway to potentially use stem cell therapy to treat heart diseasediabetesand spinal cord injuries.
This type of medicine would allow for autologous transplantation, thus removing the risk of organ transplant rejection by the recipient.
Ethics of cloning Human cloning In bioethicsthe ethics of cloning refers to a variety of ethical positions regarding the practice and possibilities of cloningespecially human cloning. While many of these views are religious in origin, the questions raised by cloning are faced by secular perspectives as well.
Human therapeutic and reproductive cloning are not commercially used; animals are currently cloned in laboratories and in livestock production. Advocates support development of therapeutic cloning in order to generate tissues and whole organs to treat patients who otherwise cannot obtain transplants,  to avoid the need for immunosuppressive drugs and to stave off the effects of aging.Fact sheet published by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) about cloning (human cloning, animal cloning, therapeutic cloning, etc.).
In addition to the obvious risks to the first child, noted below, those who oppose human cloning point to the repugnance of a style of reproduction with such profound potential for vanity, arguing that the freedom of children and nature of the family are in danger.
(iii) The U.S. government should cooperate with other nations and international organizations to enforce any common aspects of their respective policies on the cloning of human beings. 4) The commission concluded that different ethical and religious perspectives and traditions are divided on many of the important moral issues that surround this topic. Cloning/Embryonic Stem Cells. The term cloning is used by scientists to describe many different processes that involve making duplicates of biological material. In most cases, isolated genes or cells are duplicated for scientific study, and no new animal results. The experiment that led to the cloning of Dolly the sheep in was different: It used a cloning technique called somatic cell. Do No Harm Blog Post: CIRM Sponsored Clinical Trial Program Notable for Near Lack of hESC Latest entry from Do No Harm‘s blog: Stem Cells that Work The California Institute of Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) is nearing the end .
“In the future, genetic manipulation of embryos is expected to have the potential to go beyond the treatment of diseases to improvements: children who are taller, more athletic, and have higher IQs.
The Governments Make a Move The governments went to work shortly after the cloning of Dolly. They wanted to take control and make laws before anything drastic could ever happen.
Several ethics committees were asked to decide whether scientists should be allowed to try to clone humans.
(iii) The U.S.
government should cooperate with other nations and international organizations to enforce any common aspects of their respective policies on the cloning of human beings. 4) The commission concluded that different ethical and religious perspectives and traditions are divided on many of the important moral issues that surround this topic.
Cloning is where a cell is taken from an animal or human and the nucleus is combined with an unfertilised egg from which the nucleus has been removed, in order to create an egg which starts to divide to create (if it survives implantation in the womb) an identical twin of .