Abstract The media play a central role in informing the public about what happens in the world, particularly in those areas in which audiences do not possess direct knowledge or experience. This article examines the impact the media has in the construction of public belief and attitudes and its relationship to social change. Drawing on findings from a range of empirical studies, we look at the impact of media coverage in areas such as disability, climate change and economic development.
John Jingu Contents 1. Media includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting medium such as newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, billboards, direct mail, telephone, fax, and internet. It includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting medium such as newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, billboards, direct mail, telephone, fax, and internet.
Media are very integral part of our lives as they generate popular interest and debate about any social problem. Other calls them as mass media. Although many different meanings and interpretations may exist for the term mass media for our analysis on public policy we can say that the mass media is a group that constructs messages with embedded values, and that disseminates those messages to a specific portion of the public in order to achieve a specific goal.
A group can be newspapers, movie studios, television networks, radio stations, social networks, and media conglomerate. These are all collectively called as media of mass media. Media is Sometimes called the "fourth branch of government," the mass media serve a number of functions within the context of government policy making.
Through media, people are able to get informed and be updated about what is happening around them and the world and make judgments regarding various issues. According to Jack LuleMedia fulfill several roles in culture, including the following: It helps governments circulate "vital information about public services-- and government accomplishments--while providing opportunities for opposition parties to criticize government and propose alternative policies.
Understanding media and culture. They hold informative and entertaining content that is of general or special interest and are published once or daily, weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly.
Regular readers of print media tend to be more likely to be politically active. According to Lule it is believed that the Chinese were the first to invent the art of printing when they made wooden blocks to print letters during the period of the Tang Dynasty in AD. However, it was not until the late 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century when print media and graphic design emerged following the discovery of a movable type printing system technology by Johannes Gutenburg around Because of their ability to reach vast numbers of people, broadcast media play a very important role in offering informative and entertaining content of both general and special interest to the public.
Broadcast media or electronic media is probably the most prevalent form of media observable today. According to Lule television and radio since their invention in the late s and s respectively, have led to a revolutionary change in the way people perceive entertainment, information and news.
The advent of films in theatres as well as televisions has led to the formation of the film industry. Further, with the advent of satellite channels and cable TV, breaking news stories from any part of the world and coverage of world events is 3 4 Page broadcast within seconds, so an individual with access to satellite TV has instant availability of information.
After World War II, television boomed in the United States and abroad, though its concentration in the hands of three major networks led to accusations of conformity. People around the world especially the youth are now becoming familiar traditional media outlets, such as BBC and CNN, but also turn to unique online news sources such as weblogs blogs.
Websites can provide text, audio, and video information; all of the ways traditional media are transmitted.
The web also allows for a more interactive approach by allowing people to personally tailor the news they receive via personalized web portals, newsgroups, podcasts, and RSS feeds.
Blogs for example, have become very influential since the start of the 21st century. Leading bloggers write their opinions on a variety of issues, and thousands of people respond on message boards.
Although many blogs are highly partisan and inaccurate, a few have been instrumental in breaking big stories. In the past few years, social media brought about by the Internet has experienced an exponential rise in popularity. Although it is still not widely recognized as a mass media form in many developing countries, Internet usage has increased by tremendously in the past ten years following an increase in penetration among the world population.
Therefore, what started as a system of inter-connected computer networks in the US in the s according to Lule has now become a global phenomenon with billions of users?
Although the Internet can be used as a mode of personal communication as well, it is an important mass media tool today as it carries an extensive range of information resources and services. Social media platforms like Twitter, YouTube, Facebook, Whatsapp, Instagram and the like are fast emerging as the primary source of reaching out to the public.
Due to its global outreach and unlimited access, it is a popular choice these days as a mass media instrument.
These here are two types of ownership of media; public and private. The public media, refers to providing communication as a public service most of the time own by the public and runned by the state on behalf of the public.
The second group is the prive media own by individuals groups of companies. Private media provides communication for the purpose of generating profit at the same time informing the public.
Some of the key and common actors in public policy are political leaders, bureaucrats, Media, civil societies, parliamentarians and the judiciary.Political scientists and some historians have tended to emphasize the role of public opinion in government and politics, paying particular attention to its influence on the development of government policy.
Indeed, some political scientists have regarded public opinion as equivalent to the national will. An essay from the prestigious journal, Columbia Journalism Review, notes the crucial role of free media and the need for public education in society to maintain democracy: In recognition of the role that the press played in the nation’s founding, and in appreciation of the crucial role it plays in maintaining a free society, the press was.
STUDY. features and other "light" news and less about major news events of the day because such news is more popular with the general public. The major consequence of the press's increased emphasis on conflict and image is.
increased cynicism by .
According to the Huffington Post, mainstream media sometimes fall short in keeping citizens aware, but there are other reliable information resources available.
Blogs play an important role in keeping the general public informed in Yellow Journalism. The media has influenced politics throughout American history. The most prominent—and notorious—example is the role of William Randolph Hearst’s newspapers in starting the Spanish-American War in Educating public health workers, public and private sector policy makers and leaders, health service payers and providers, and the general public about essential public health functions to be performed by federal, state, and local governments and the private sectors, and their implementation and effectiveness around the nation.